The next morning, we saw the citadel ((Where Cardinal Mazarin, six years later, shut up the leaders of the Fronde, Condé, Conti, and Longueville, — “the lion, the ape, and the fox” according to Gaston of Orleans. –AD)), strong and regular, well stored with artillery and ammunition of all sorts: the works furnished with fair brass cannon, having a motto, Ratio ultima Regum ((Latin – “The last argument of Kings” or more “The last resort of Kings”.  This phrase was placed on French cannon by order of Louis XIV  – GS)).

“Intérieur de la citadelle du Havre de Grâce” by Hubert Robert. 1700. Source: BnF. Shows woman sitting on cannon – one of many bearing the King’s motto.

The allogements ((Accommodation – from the French “logement” -GS)) of the garrison are uniform; a spacious place for drawing up the soldiers, a pretty chapel, and a fair house for the Governor ((In 1644 the Governer was Francis Vignerot Pont-Courlay – father of the Duke of Richelieu. The Duke took over the role of Governor on the death of his father in  June 1646. In this entry Evelyn wrote he met the both  Duke and Governor during his stay in Le Havre – perhaps he was incorrect when referring to notes or he met both father and son – GS)). The Duke of Richelieu being now in the fort, we went to salute him; who received us very civilly, and commanded that we should be showed whatever we desired to see. The citadel was built by the late Cardinal de Richelieu, uncle ((actually great-uncle -GS))  of the present Duke, and may be esteemed one of the strongest in France. The haven is very capacious.

“La (sic) Havre de Grâce” by Jaques Gomboust, 1657. Source: BnF

When we had done here, we embarked ourselves and horses to pass to Honfleur, about four or five leagues ((An English  league was 3 miles, so Evelyn was stating 12-15 miles or 19 – 24km -GS))  distant, where the Seine falls into the sea. It is a poor fisher-town, remarkable for nothing so much as the odd, yet useful habits which the good women wear ((Possibly the distinctive quichenotte or sun-bonnet -GS))  , of bears’ and other skins, as of rugs at Dieppe, and all along these maritime coasts.